There are many steel types out there so it is nice to know a bit about them before you buy a knife. Here are some of the types of steel that we carry in the shop. If you have any further questions please do not hesitate to contact us and I will do my best to answer any questions.

Generally, Japanese knives are made with harder steel than some of your more common western knives. This is great because it means you can sharpen to a more acute angle, and they get much sharper. The downside to having hard steel however, is that it can chip. We think this is a small price to pay if you want a proper sharp knife. Steel hardness is tested on the Rockwell scale. The Rockwell test determines the hardness by measuring the depth of penetration of an indenter under a large load compared to the penetration made by a preload. So the higher the number, the harder the steel.




Designed for kitchen cutlery, VG10 is one of the more common knife steels from Japan. In the hands of a skilled craftsman, VG10 can yield incredible results. It is a stainless steel with a high carbon content. The metallurgy breaks down as such, 1% Carbon, 15% Chromium, 1% Molybdenum, 0.2% Vanadium, 1.5% Cobalt, and 0.5% Manganese. VG10 is a very versatile steel and a great one for beginners and experienced users. It is quite durable, so you need not worry about chipping if you treat it properly. It is easy to sharpen, and has great edge retention. We generally see VG10 steel in the 60-62 HRC range.


Designed by Hitachi as a steel used for dies to cut and punch other steels, it has also proven itself in the Japanese cutlery world. It’s composition looks something like this:  Carbon 1.4-1.6%, Chromium 11.0-13.0%, Molybdenum 0.8-1.2% & Vanadium 0.2-0.50%. This translates to a stainless steel that is quite durable and holds a razor edge. So far in our experience sharpening and using SLD steel, we find it sharpens similarly to carbon steel, but is a little on the tougher side. 

Cobalt Special Steel

Cobalt special steel is developed and made at Takefu Steel, it's break down looks something like this: 1.1% Carbon, 16% Chromium, 0.3% Tungsten, 1.5% Molybdenum, 0.3% Vanadium, 2.5% Cobalt. We love this steel for its stain resistant qualities and toughness, and despite having these characteristics, it is still easy to sharpen. We usually see this steel in the 61~62 HRC range.  

Powder Steel (PM)

A relatively new way to produce steel, powder-metallurgical steel is becoming popular among knife makers. The manufacturing process allows for a more evenly spread distribution of elements in the alloy, which aids in having less weak spots so the knife maker can heat-treat the steel to higher temperatures and not have to worry so much about failure. It is quite wear resistant with an even finish, which means it is less prone to chipping. Common powder steel seen in knives are SG2, R2, ZDP189, SRS-15, HAP-40, to name a few.

R2/SG2 Powder Steel

SG2 is super hard, can get mega sharp and it holds an edge for a long time. This extremely fine grained steel is one of our favourite knife steels at the shop for it’s easy sharpening and low maintenance characteristics. The even distribution of the alloy in this steel means we can sharpen it to very acute angles, and it is relatively tough. These characteristics also make it very desirable for knife makers. We generally see this steel in the 63~64 HRC range. Read more about SG2 in our blog post titled SG2 Steel Spotlight.
Hitachi HAP40 powder steel.
Tested at an incredible 67 HRC means this steel can hold an insanely sharp edge for much longer than the average knife making steel. This makes it a great choice for professionals and knife fanatics. HAP40 is a semi-stainless steel, so please wipe clean and dry immediately after use. It metallurgy break down looks something like this. 1.3% Carbon,  4% Chromium, 5% Molybdenum, 3% Vanadium, 8% Cobalt.


White Carbon Steel aka: Shirogami, Shiro-ko(#1 & #3), Shironiko(#2)

White carbon is a near pure carbon steel which can easily take a razor sharp edge. It is a favourite steel among knife sharpeners and chefs for its ease of sharpening and polishing. White carbon steel has a very small temperature window for hardening, which means it requires a skilled hand in the forging process. There are 3 varients of this steel, white#1, white#2 and white#3. White#1 being the purest and white#3 being the least common. We often see white#3 in butchery knives like the maguro-kiri because it is slighlty tougher than it's counterparts.  All 3 types of white carbon are very reactive to food, so care must be taken to wipe your blade clean and dry immediately after use. 

Blue Carbon Steel aka: Aogami, Ao-Niko

A highly sought after steel by knife makers for more forgiving in the forging process than white carbon, blue steel is also a favourite amongst knife sharpeners and chefs. Blue carbon steel adds tungsten for wear resistance and chromium to make it more resistant to rusting rust, making it a more favourable choice for a first carbon steel knife. There are 3 types of blue steel: Blue #1, Blue #2, and Aogami Super or super blue steel. Blue #1 is the purest of the 3, and will take the keenest edges, while blue super is much more rich in chemical composition and includes vanadium & molybdenum for strength and edge retention. 


A Hitachi steel also known as GIN3, Ginsan steel was designed for cutting tools like knives and scissors. With a Carbon content between 0.95% - 1.1%, and a Chromium content between 13% - 14%, Ginsan will take a beautiful edge. A slight addition of Manganese and Silicon improves grain structure, wear resistance, and hardness.


Steel Type Durability Edge Retention Ease of Sharpening Corrosion Resistance


SK Carbon
Molybdenum Vanadium 
Ginsan (Silver3)
Shirogami #1
Shirogami #2
Shirogami #3
Aogami #1
Aogami #2
Aogami Super
Cobalt Special
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